The Dubuque, Platteville and Milwaukee Railroad started out as the Platteville and Calamine Railroad in 1861 to build a line between two other railroads, also now abandoned: the Mineral Point Railroad at Calamine and the Galena and Southern Wisconsin Railroad at Platteville. Without any tracks having been constructed, the railroad was purchased outright by the MPRR within the year. On April 6, 1867, the P&C was renamed to the Dubuque, Platteville and Milwaukee Railroad, and construction soon followed the next year, with 9.6 miles completed between Calamine and Belmont. In 1870, the DP&M completed the remaining 7.5 miles into Platteville.
The line came under the control of the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Railroad in 1880.
The original route of the DP&M was abandoned along with the rest of the Mineral Point Railroad in 1984.