This line was part of the original Old Colony Railroad line that ran passenger service between Boston and Provincetown in Massachusetts. The line was originally built by the Cape Cod Central Railroad in 1865, and purchased by the Cape Cod Railroad in 1868. The railroad line reached Provincetown in 1873.
The tracks to Provincetown were removed in the 1930s under the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. Today, the southern half of the right-of-way hosts the Cape Cod Rail Trail.